原标题:人造光影响北极浮游动物 | 暗夜保护研究

Plastic waste that finds its way into the oceans often ends up floating
on the water’s surface. It makes up huge isles of marine debris, like
the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and it enables nature photographers to
take pictures of the ocean water that nearly do not feature that water
at all – because it is fully covered with a layer of trash. But plastic
does not only accumulate on the oceans’ surface. According to the newest
research, plastic pollution now reaches even the very deepest parts of
the oceans – and it is found in the stomachs of deep-sea creatures
living even seven miles under the surface.


This data concerning the pervasiveness of plastic waste in the oceans
was released on behalf of Sky Ocean Rescue. The study was led by
academics at Newcastle University and it found that animals from the
deepest parts of the Pacific Ocean were contaminated with fibers that
most likely came from plastic bottles and packaging as well as synthetic


According to Dr, Alan Jamieson, leader of the study, the findings prove
that there is no place on our planet free from plastic pollution
anymore. “There is now no doubt that plastics pollution is so pervasive
that nowhere – no matter how remote – is immune,” Jamieson told the
Guardian. At the same time, he underlined the need for action heavily.


During the study, samples of crustaceans found in the deepest trenches
across the Pacific Ocean – the Mariana, Japan, Izu-Bonin, Peru-Chile,
New Hebrides, and Kermadec trenches were tested. The trenches range from
four to more than six miles deep. They also include the deepest point in
the ocean, Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench.


The researchers examined 90 individual animals – and found that
ingestion of plastic ranged from 50 percent in the New Hebrides Trench
to 100 percent at the bottom of the Mariana Trench.

译者按/Linda 翻译/Cat 编/Angel

“The deep sea is not only the ultimate sink for any material that
descends from the surface, but it is also inhabited by organisms well
adapted to a low food environment and these will often eat just about
anything,” Jamieson said and explained that deep-sea organisms are
dependent on food “raining down from the surface which in turn brings
any adverse components, such as plastic and pollutants with it.”

Artificial Light Affects Zooplankton in Arctic

“Isolating plastic fibers from inside animals from nearly 11 kilometers
deep [seven miles] just shows the extent of the problem. Also, the
number of areas we found this in, and the thousands of kilometer
distances involved shows it is not just an isolated case, this is
global,” he said.


Every year, around 8.8 million tons of plastic waste gets dumped into
the oceans. This waste does not cease to exist – it accumulates and goes
on to affect the environment and the organisms living, as the study
shows, in exactly every part and every layer of the oceans. “These
observations are the deepest possible record of microplastic occurrence
and ingestion, indicating it is highly likely there are no marine
ecosystems left that are not impacted by anthropogenic debris.” Putting
an end to the overflow of plastic waste in the oceans will require
cooperation from governments and big businesses – but it also requires
action from all of us as consumers. Our personal choices do make a
difference and we can make it a difference for the better.

on AUGUST 14, 2018


During the polar night in the high Arctic, a team of scientists
discovered “that certain aspects of the polar marine ecosystems are
extremely sensitive to potential light pollution and that traditional
sampling techniques are insufficient to study them.”


Using a Jetyak, an Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) equipped with an
engine and scientific instruments, researchers studied the behavior of
zooplankton in an unpolluted light environment and compared that to how
zooplankton behaved in a light-polluted environment close to their
traditional research vessels. They observed that despite the fact that
the sun never rose above the horizon, zooplankton responded to small
changes in natural light in areas without light pollution.

Surface Vehicle,

图片 1


Light is an important cue for many biological processes. The study
notes, “the zooplankton community is intimately connected to the ambient
light regime.” In zooplankton communities, light induces cyclical
patterns of vertical movements called diel vertical migrations (DVMs).
According to the authors of this study, “The DVM of zooplankton is the
most widespread and synchronized movement of biomass on the planet and
thus is one of the most important factors to consider for understanding
marine food-web interactions and ecosystem structures.”


图片 2


However, zooplankton display a strong light-escape response. The
scientists found that the artificial light emitted from traditional
sampling platforms interferes with the natural rhythms of zooplankton to
a depth of 100 meters. This study emphasizes the need for changes to the
lighting used on traditional sampling platforms in aquatic environments
in order to collect accurate data. The study notes, “Despite an
increased awareness that small changes in natural light affect the
behavior of marine organisms in naturally dim environments, we are only
starting to understand how and why organisms respond to changes in light
that occur on scales below what most commercial sensors can detect.”


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