原标题:人造光影响北极浮游动物 | 暗夜保护研究

Plastic waste that finds its way into the oceans often ends up floating
on the water’s surface. It makes up huge isles of marine debris, like
the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and it enables nature photographers to
take pictures of the ocean water that nearly do not feature that water
at all – because it is fully covered with a layer of trash. But plastic
does not only accumulate on the oceans’ surface. According to the newest
research, plastic pollution now reaches even the very deepest parts of
the oceans – and it is found in the stomachs of deep-sea creatures
living even seven miles under the surface.

编者按:1879年10月21日,电灯问世,从此极大的改变了人们的生产生活方式。此后约150年中,人类“日出而作,日入而息”的自然昼夜节律,逐步被人工照明所代替,而掌控照明科技的人类成为暗夜的主宰。这一系列变革,无疑是进步的,带来了极大的便利。

This data concerning the pervasiveness of plastic waste in the oceans
was released on behalf of Sky Ocean Rescue. The study was led by
academics at Newcastle University and it found that animals from the
deepest parts of the Pacific Ocean were contaminated with fibers that
most likely came from plastic bottles and packaging as well as synthetic
clothing.

然而,科技是一把双刃剑。近年来越来越多的研究发现,人造光也可能是一种污染源,——光污染。自然的暗夜以及在昼夜交替的自然律动中经过数以万年计进化至今的生物和生态系统,人工照明带来的“光污染”,让深深篆刻在它们DNA里的密码不适应,并带来一系列的问题。之前已经有大量研究表明,光污染对于昆虫、海洋动物、迁徙鸟类等可能带来的严重影响,如让它们失去方向,扰乱它们的自然作息,导致致命后果。

According to Dr, Alan Jamieson, leader of the study, the findings prove
that there is no place on our planet free from plastic pollution
anymore. “There is now no doubt that plastics pollution is so pervasive
that nowhere – no matter how remote – is immune,” Jamieson told the
Guardian. At the same time, he underlined the need for action heavily.

光污染、暗夜、星空遗产等概念,对中国人民来说还并不熟悉。为此,中国绿发会成立了星空工作委员会,旨在保护暗夜、重塑星空作为遗产的价值,并唤起人们对光污染的认识。

During the study, samples of crustaceans found in the deepest trenches
across the Pacific Ocean – the Mariana, Japan, Izu-Bonin, Peru-Chile,
New Hebrides, and Kermadec trenches were tested. The trenches range from
four to more than six miles deep. They also include the deepest point in
the ocean, Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench.

光污染对于海洋生态系统等会带来什么样的影响?最近一篇新的研究显示:人造光对北极浮游动物也产生了较大的影响。研究人员发现,在浮游动物群落中,光照引导它们垂直运动的周期性行为,即昼夜垂直迁徙(DVMs)。中国绿发会星空工作委员会现将此文翻译分享如下。

The researchers examined 90 individual animals – and found that
ingestion of plastic ranged from 50 percent in the New Hebrides Trench
to 100 percent at the bottom of the Mariana Trench.

译者按/Linda 翻译/Cat 编/Angel

“The deep sea is not only the ultimate sink for any material that
descends from the surface, but it is also inhabited by organisms well
adapted to a low food environment and these will often eat just about
anything,” Jamieson said and explained that deep-sea organisms are
dependent on food “raining down from the surface which in turn brings
any adverse components, such as plastic and pollutants with it.”

Artificial Light Affects Zooplankton in Arctic

“Isolating plastic fibers from inside animals from nearly 11 kilometers
deep [seven miles] just shows the extent of the problem. Also, the
number of areas we found this in, and the thousands of kilometer
distances involved shows it is not just an isolated case, this is
global,” he said.

人造光影响北极浮游动物

Every year, around 8.8 million tons of plastic waste gets dumped into
the oceans. This waste does not cease to exist – it accumulates and goes
on to affect the environment and the organisms living, as the study
shows, in exactly every part and every layer of the oceans. “These
observations are the deepest possible record of microplastic occurrence
and ingestion, indicating it is highly likely there are no marine
ecosystems left that are not impacted by anthropogenic debris.” Putting
an end to the overflow of plastic waste in the oceans will require
cooperation from governments and big businesses – but it also requires
action from all of us as consumers. Our personal choices do make a
difference and we can make it a difference for the better.

on AUGUST 14, 2018

2018年8月14日

During the polar night in the high Arctic, a team of scientists
discovered “that certain aspects of the polar marine ecosystems are
extremely sensitive to potential light pollution and that traditional
sampling techniques are insufficient to study them.”

在北极高纬度地区的极夜期间,一个科学家团队发现,“在极地海洋生态系统中,某些方面对潜在的光污染极其敏感,而传统的抽样技术还不足以研究这些方面。”

Using a Jetyak, an Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) equipped with an
engine and scientific instruments, researchers studied the behavior of
zooplankton in an unpolluted light environment and compared that to how
zooplankton behaved in a light-polluted environment close to their
traditional research vessels. They observed that despite the fact that
the sun never rose above the horizon, zooplankton responded to small
changes in natural light in areas without light pollution.

研究人员运用了Jetyak来比较浮游动物在无光污染环境、以及在靠近传统调查船只的光污染环境下的表现,Jetyak是一种自动驾驶的无人艇(Autonomous
Surface Vehicle,
简称ASV),它配备了一个引擎和科研设备。研究人员发现,尽管太阳从未升到海平面以上,在无光污染区域里,浮游动物对自然光的微妙变化还是做出了反应。

图片 1

根据美国国家海洋及大气总署(NOAA)等机构的天文科学家绘制的“全球光污染地图”,地球上1/3人口无法看到灿烂星空。图/NOAA

Light is an important cue for many biological processes. The study
notes, “the zooplankton community is intimately connected to the ambient
light regime.” In zooplankton communities, light induces cyclical
patterns of vertical movements called diel vertical migrations (DVMs).
According to the authors of this study, “The DVM of zooplankton is the
most widespread and synchronized movement of biomass on the planet and
thus is one of the most important factors to consider for understanding
marine food-web interactions and ecosystem structures.”

光是多种生物过程的重要信号。这篇研究指出:“浮游动物与周围的光照密切相关。”在浮游动物群落中,光照引导它们垂直运动的周期性行为,即昼夜垂直迁徙(DVMs)。这项研究的作者表示,“浮游动物的昼夜垂直迁徙行为是地球上分布程度最广、步骤最协调的生物量大迁徙,因此,如要了解海洋食物网络的相互作用、生态系统结构,它们也是最需要考虑的重要因素之一。

图片 2

来源:IDA

However, zooplankton display a strong light-escape response. The
scientists found that the artificial light emitted from traditional
sampling platforms interferes with the natural rhythms of zooplankton to
a depth of 100 meters. This study emphasizes the need for changes to the
lighting used on traditional sampling platforms in aquatic environments
in order to collect accurate data. The study notes, “Despite an
increased awareness that small changes in natural light affect the
behavior of marine organisms in naturally dim environments, we are only
starting to understand how and why organisms respond to changes in light
that occur on scales below what most commercial sensors can detect.”

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